Monday, May 25, 2020

The Theory Of Mind Is Not A Thing - 1449 Words

‘Theory of Mind’ refers to the amount of information the brain is capable of holding to attribute mental states to self and others. Mental state, are states of the mind, such as beliefs, thoughts, emotions, and perceptions. Mental attributions are often made in both verbal and nonverbal forms. There are many theories, it seems, to have words or phrases to describe mental states, including perceptions, emotional states, and feelings. People interact in social life have many thoughts and beliefs about others mental states, even when they don’t verbalize them. In this essay the core question in this field is: How do they go about the task of forming beliefs or judgments about others’ mental states, states that aren’t directly observable?†¦show more content†¦Logical behaviorist believe that mental states cannot cause behavioral dispositions, it is the disposition.So anyone who has behavioral dispositions has the mental state, vice versa. Logical behaviorism is a materialist theory, states that everything in the universe is matter, without any true spiritual or intellectual existence, because it focuses on observable behavior. The theory only talks about physical objects and their tendency to act a certain way. It does not recognize the existence of nonphysical objects. It is also a reductive theory, a theory that states everything in the world can be reduced to one or a few basic things. The theory holds that mental states are behavioral dispositions. The problem of other minds seems to be a problem for many philoso phical theories. The problem of other minds is the problem of explaining if it is possible to tell whether other people in the world have minds. I know that I, personally have a mind because I experience things directly. I have emotions, beliefs, and desires, that proves that I have a mind. But I can t experience anyone else mind. Minds are not physical , you cannot use physical object to detect them. Unlike other theories like Cartesian dualism, logical behaviorism solves the the problem of other minds. You cannot tell whether Cartesian minds exist because they are unobservable. Logical behaviorism, minds are patterns of actual and possible behavior. Since behaviors can be observed, mindsShow MoreRelatedFor Years, Philosophers Have Debated The Mind-Body Problem,1195 Words   |  5 PagesFor years, philosophers have debated the mind-body problem, the issue of what mental phenomena are and how they relate to the physical world. Philosopher Descartes believed in substance dualism , the belief that the mind and the body are two different things. In this essay, I will examine Descartes’ substance dualism theory. First, I will review Descartes’s theory and reasons that support it. Then, I will review objections with Descartes’s argument. After that, I will imagine how Descartes would respondRead MoreIs Dualism Best? The Nature Of Consciousness? Essay1070 Words   |  5 PagesPhilosophy Professor Bayne Dualism Best Explains the Nature of Consciousness The three theories we have discussed so far are the dualism theory of Plato and Descartes, the Aristotelian theory, and the Physicalism (identity) theory of Place and Strong. The identity of consciousness means that if you have the same consciousness, you are the same person, and if not conscience, you are not the same person. The thing that remains constant throughout all states of consciousness is that it is physicallyRead MoreThe Mind Body Problem Arises Essay1034 Words   |  5 PagesThesis: The mind-body problem arises because of the lack of evidence when looking for a specific explanation of the interaction of mental and physical states, and the origin and even existence of them. Summary: The problem of the soul continues as Descartes suggested that the human is composed of two completely different substances; a physical body which Descartes compares with a machine, and a non-physical mind, related to the soul, that allows humans to think and feel even if it has no â€Å"measurableRead MoreThe Theory Of Mind, And Sensation Essay1191 Words   |  5 Pagesartistic taste. In other words, both sides of things like the Beauty and the Ugly. Aesth means pleasure and pain while ethics means goodness and evil. This makes the basis Emotion. Aesthetics is broken up to a lot of things. In the following essay, we will be focusing and discussing the Theory of mind, and Sensation. The theory of mind starts with Descartes Dualism. Descartes was a man that â€Å"believed that the body and the soul are different kinds of things.† He called these substances. The body isRead MoreThe Mind Body Identity Theory1668 Words   |  7 Pagesout the nature of a human person; this has lead to various theories and speculation about the nature of the human mind and body. The question they are tying to answer is whether a human being is made of only the physical, body and brain, or both the physical or the mental, mind. In this paper I will focus on the mind-body Identity Theory to illustrate that it provides a suitable explanation for the mind and body interaction. Identity Theory Identity theorists hold the view that the mental eventsRead MorePhilosophy Of Rene Descartes860 Words   |  4 Pages He believed that because he is a thing that thinks, then he must have some kind of consciousness or awareness of the world. Because he has consciousness, he reasons that he must exist, especially since he is aware that he is a thing that thinks. His physical body, on the other hand, has no awareness. From this stems another critical part of his philosophy which states that the mind and the body are two separate substances. This concept is called dualism. Minds are indestructible and indivisibleRead MoreThe Mind-Body Problem Essay957 Words   |  4 PagesThe Mind-Body Problem The mind-body problem, which is still debated even today, raises the question about the relationship between the mind and the body. Theorists, such as Renà © Descartes and Thomas Nagel, have written extensively on the problem but they have many dissenting beliefs. Descartes, a dualist, contends that the mind and body are two different substances that can exist separately. Conversely, Nagel, a dual aspect theorist, contends that the mind and body are not substances but differentRead MoreThe Theory Of The Mind964 Words   |  4 PagesThe mind is both rational and consciously aware in situations that demand a reactive response. It acts as a control system that communicates between the external world and the spiritual being, allowing reasoning to take play. For years, philosophers have hypothesized ways to identify the minds function and capabilities. Causing both controversy and accord, these philosophers center their theories on rationalism and take a methodical approach towards unde rstanding the complexity of the mind. Renà ©Read MoreEssay on Sigmund Freud: The Father of Psychoanalysis1580 Words   |  7 PagesFreud demonstrated a broad perspective on things involving dreams, religion, and cultural artifacts. He focused on different states of the mind, such as unconsciousness. Freud relied on a local sexual repression issue to create theories about human behavior all together. Although many people would agree that Sigmund Freud’s theories are controversial, he is said to be one of the most influential scientists with great work concerning psychology. His theories and ideas of psychoanalysis still have aRead MoreI, Myself, And My Body1222 Words   |  5 Pagesand My Body The mind is about mental processes and thought, while the body is the physical aspects of the brain. For years, philosophers have been perplexed by the mind-body problem. The mind is about mental processes and thought, while the body is the physical aspects of the brain. The mind-body problem discusses the mind and body, along with the relationship between them. Dualists and monists are the two types of people that take a stand on the issue. While Dualism may spilt mind and body, monism

Thursday, May 14, 2020

The Population Keeps Aging, Alzheimer s Disease ( Ad )

Intro As the population keeps aging, Alzheimer s Disease (AD) is becoming a more significant public health issue. The prevalence of AD is expected to reach 34 million worldwide by 2025 (Mount 2006) and with the aging demographic, early diagnosis and treatment of AD is gaining importance. Cognitive decline and altered brain function related to AD has been shown to be present years before the clinical onset of the disorder through functional brain imaging techniques (Prvulovic 2011). Emphasis has been on detection of AD in its preclinical stages to provide early interventions for the patients. Since Fuld et al.(1990) s study suggesting that the examination of cognitive functioning in non demented older adults is predictive of prospective dementia, countless studies have attempted to devise reliable methods of detecting cognitive changes and risk factors in preclinical populations. Family history of a first degree relative with AD (+FH) has been shown to be a risk factor for the development of AD (Fratiglioni 1993) and studies have confirmed that pathological changes related to AD, such as impaired recall, are present years before the clinical manifestation of the disorder in +FH non demented participants (Bondi 1994). In addition, the APOE gene, located on chromosome 19, has been linked to AD, with its e2, e3 and e4 alleles having varying effects on the development of the disorder. The e2 allele has been found to be a protective factor against the neural changes of ADShow MoreRelatedSymptoms And Symptoms Of Alzheimer s Disease930 Words   |  4 PagesAlzheimer’s Disease Kevin Arnold from the Wonder Years said â€Å"Memory is a way of holding on to the things you love, the things you are, and the things never want to lose.† Memories are the things that are upheld, whether good or bad, those memories are imprinted in the mind and cannot be taken away that is, until later in life. As one ages it is natural for some memories to fade. Loss of memories and brain function deficits that occur and are not from normal aging may indicate a person is sufferingRead MoreAlzheimers Disease : My Grandmas Killer1510 Words   |  7 PagesAlzheimer’s Disease: My Grandma’s Killer Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is characterized by gradual cognitive decline that beings with the inability to create recent memories or thoughts which then proceeds to influencing all intellectual functions (Mayeux Stern, 2012) . Alzheimer’s disease leads to premature death and the dependence of someone for daily life functions. (Mayeux Stern, 2012) If effects an estimated 5.5 million people in the United States and 24 million people worldwide (Mayeux SternRead MoreEssay about Effects of Alzheimer’s Disease1053 Words   |  5 PagesAlzheimer’s disease affects 1 out of every 8 people in the United States. It is a long and debilitating disease that affects every aspect of a person’s life from the way they preform daily tasks, to the physical and mental abilities that are diminishing. Along with the lifestyle changes that Alzheimer’s disease presents, it also affects one’s psychological perspective as well their view on what they can offe r their family and society. There are some ways to maintain a level of independence with aRead MoreAlzheimers Disease Health Promotion Case Study1255 Words   |  6 PagesSTAGES Alzheimer s Disease Health Promotion Case Study Part 2: Gender, Culture, and Developmental Stages February 18,1999 Gender, Culture, and Developmental Stages Introduction This section will discuss the impact of Alzheimer s disease on racial, cultural, and gender variables, with the focus being on the various approaches to care of the disease. Developmental stages and tasks will be discussed for both the client and the caregiver. Gender and Culture Alzheimer s disease and relatedRead MoreAlzheimer s Disease : My Grandma s Killer1354 Words   |  6 PagesAlzheimer’s Disease: My Grandma’s Killer Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is characterized by gradual cognitive decline that beings with the inability to create recent memories or thoughts, which then proceeds to effect on all intellectual functions (Mayeux Stern, 2012). AD affects an estimated 5.5 million people in the United States, and 24 million people worldwide (Mayeux Stern, 2012). The incidence of Alzheimer’s disease is rising in line with the aging population, therefore; AD is most common inRead MoreAlzheimer s Disease And Its Effects1701 Words   |  7 Pages Alzheimer’s disease is predicted to affect 115 million people worldwide by the year 2050 (Aggarwal, Neelum). This debilitating disease was mostly in the dark to scientists until 2011 when they were finally able to develop a way to observe and study the development of the stages of Alzheimer’s. A lot is still largely unknown about the disease and current studies aim to categorize, provide infrastructure, provide early detection as well as research possible treatments for the disease (Aggarwal, Neelum)Read MoreOutline Of Alzheimer s Alzheimer S2283 Words   |  10 Pagesdaily occurrence and many times he would become uneasy even in his most familiar surroundings. We wrote it off as depression due to the loss of my uncle, his son. As his symptoms worsened we continued to write it off as depression, stress, or normal aging. However, as time went on he started to lose more and more of what made him my Oompah. My once smiley, happy, larger than life grandfather now fell into a life of monotone dialogue and we could no longer ignore the grey overtone and clouds surroundingRead MoreDiagnosis Of Is The Autopsy Of Brain Tissue And Finding The Characteristic Gross Pathological Findings Of The Disease2884 Words   |  12 Pages1.4. Diagnosis The only sure way to confirm diagnosis of AD is the autopsy of brain tissue and finding the characteristic gross pathological findings of the disease. But this procedure takes place after the death of the patient. However, diagnosis can be accomplished with high accuracy even when the patient is still alive with a variety of methods (Medline plus, 2010): ï‚ · Careful and detailed clinical examination by experienced and qualified neurologist. ï‚ · Neuropsychological testing, which is necessaryRead MoreLong Term Facilities And Their Levels Of Service, And Financing For Individuals Who Are Facing The Challenge Of2902 Words   |  12 Pagestheir levels of service, and financing for individuals who are facing the challenge of Alzheimer s disease. This is an important topic that affects me personally and professionally as well as having lasting effects on our community. Alzheimer s disease currently ranks as the #6 leading cause of death in the United States and with the Baby Boomer generation currently standing as the largest aging population in the US, there is already a surge in need to support these individuals. Our societyRead MoreThe World Population Is Evolving Ageing And Cognitive Impairment ( Ci ) Is A Fast Growing Problem1722 Words   |  7 Pagesinnovative products and services. The world population is rapidly ageing and cognitive impairment (CI) is a fast growing problem Cognition is the integration of mental functions such as attention, memory, producing and understanding language and communication, learning, reasoning, problem solving, and decision making in order to process an adaptive behavioral response to a constantly changing environment. Between 2000 and 2050, the proportion of the world s population over 60 years will double from about

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay about Learning Strategies - 1390 Words

Introduction of Learner: The purpose of this assessment is to describe a struggling student’s involvement with text and print, specifically in language fluency and use, awareness of form and function of writing, ability to decode and encode, spelling levels, and range of literature read. E, a 9 year old fourth grader, attends her local elementary at St. Andrew School in Drexel Hill. The evaluation occurred through one-on-one instruction on a variety of dates. She is a cooperative student, but not a risk taker. She hesitates when she has to respond because it seems as if she perceives that the answer she is giving is wrong, or she seems to be intimidated when asked questions directly. She does remain focused when reading and puts energy†¦show more content†¦E is below level in reading comprehension, however, very strong in word recognizing. Her parents say that she prefers not to read aloud. She enjoys reading along while being read to. E seems to comprehend what she reads. Her parents also notice that she needs some extra time when answering questions. E’s parents rarely see her reading at home. They say that she does not like to read because it is frustrating for her to read for long periods of time and can become frustrating for her. Homework also becomes increasingly frustrating for her after thirty minutes. Her parents also say that when completing her summer reading she did not like to read alone, so she went on YouTube and found a read along link. There are three hundred sixty kids that attend St. Andrew School, a suburban catholic school located outside of Philadelphia. Students represent many races, all follow the Christian religion. Learning Environment: The environment in which strategies were brought out was located in a comfortable classroom environment for the learner before school, after school, and during teacher prep periods. E was immersed in literature and demonstrated by the teacher, E learned different strategies of comprehension and fluency. The learner understood that she is a doer and can perform the demonstrations. She understood that the strategies can help her comprehend and trusted in the instructor’s direction so that she can complete the taskShow MoreRelatedTeaching / Learning Strategies For Learning1621 Words   |  7 Pagesdifferent strategies for learning, the student feels confident to explore, and mistakes most likely are to be minimized and engagement increased. Lessons and activities that enhance and support learning are teaching /learning strategies that when cooperatively done contributes to a lifelong learning/knowledge. Students skills activities allow me to provide feedb ack that can be shared and/or discussed by the whole class increasing learning. Opportunities lead to sharing that leads to learning. By literallyRead MoreLearning Strategies For Vocabulary Learning783 Words   |  4 PagesUnfamiliarity with Other Existing Strategies for Vocabulary Learning At the end of the interviews, I asked the participants if they knew of other kinds of strategies apart from the ones they had already mentioned, and whether they were familiar with all 42 items of vocabulary learning strategies presented in the questionnaire they had completed (in the quantitative phase of the mixed methods research design). Some of the participants’ perspectives on this are reflected in the following excerpts.Read MoreThe Learning And Teaching Strategies876 Words   |  4 Pagesgreat learning and teaching strategies are presented in the text, How we learn†¦ of which a few learning tactics, namely discrimination, perceptual learning, chunking and interleaving will be briefly discussed as to how they have relevance in my context. To begin we will examine discrimination, the brain’s ability to â€Å"detect minute differences in sights, sounds and textures. [Such is considered]†¦one of the first steps we take in making sense of the world† (Carey, 2012, p.180). This learning techniqueRead MoreEssay on Learning Strategies896 Words   |  4 PagesLearning Strategies The new year begins and Learning Strategies is on your schedule. Truly, you are probably not knowing what to expect and you think that this class is not for you. Boy, are you wrong. This class will save you plenty of time, so you better listen closely. At the end, you will leave the class wondering why no one ever showed me this. So listen up! The three most useful things that I learned in this class are: my learning style, how to take notes when reading a textbook, andRead MoreLearning Strategies for Students1178 Words   |  5 PagesA learning strategy is a person’s approach to learning and using information. Students use learning strategies to help them understand information and solve problems. Students who do not know or use good learning strategies will ultimately fail in school. Learning approach focuses on making student learners more active, by teaching them how to learn and be successful. My successes for teaching the Acquisition to Generalization Framework lesson to my student were that I was able to get my studentRead MoreAdolescent Learning Strategies 2441 Words   |  10 PagesI believe that every individual responds to learning in different ways and retains, develops and applies knowledge and information using methods that are specific to them and their abilities. I believe that these strategies evolve from personal development and are preferences that have emerged from previous success. Although, whilst we might prefer to be taught or to learn in a specific style I do not think students are unreceptive to other methods and if information can be presented in a varietyRead MoreTeaching Strategies For Students With A Learning Environment Suitable For Learning Essay2029 Words   |  9 Pageson how to engage and motivate students to do their work. As an educator, I have to be constantly changing my teaching strategies to meet the diverse needs of the students and e stablish a learning environment suitable for learning. In order for teachers to become leaders, they have to keep educating themselves professionally and implement new teaching methods to enhance the learning of the students. In addition, effective teachers have to implement activities that are meaningful to the students andRead MoreLearning Strategies to Learn English1058 Words   |  5 PagesLearning strategies to learn English It is time to learn effective strategies for learning English as a second language acquisition. It is important to know that there are some learning strategies to help students how to learn English. Those strategies are learning English by the use of the internet and learning English in a classroom. But there are some students that do not have success on learning English and there are some questions about it: Why some students are not successful EnglishRead MoreCooperative Learning : A Successful Instructional Strategy1663 Words   |  7 Pagesare multiple strategies and theories in the education world that allow for student success and growth. One strategy that some teachers use to promote effective classroom management is a strategy called cooperative learning. Cooperative learning is a successful instructional strategy that allows student learning and positive social-behavior skills to foster based on small group work where each group member’s success is dependent on one another. Cooperative learning is an efficient strategy to includeRead MoreA Study of Learning Strategies in L2 Acquisition1660 Words   |  7 PagesA Study of Learning Strategies in L2 Acquisition 〠Abstract】With the concept of autonomy being part of the mainstream of research and practice within the field of language education, the study of learning strategies in L2 acquisition has drawn much attention. This paper discusses the issues covering the fundamental aspect: identification and classification of learning strategy. The problems are reviewed concerning the definition and classification of learning strategies and then the paper tentatively

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

A tool for Financial Reforms in the Philippines free essay sample

Taxation is regarded as one among fiscal policies in governance. It plays a vital role in the development of a country. The ability to collect taxes is a core functions of an effective state. Taxes, if used properly, can promote economic growth and lessen income inequalities. For a country like the Philippines, it begins with the actuality that it provides the revenue needed to finance government activities. Thus, the traditional tax reform programs are premised mainly in generating more revenues to finance public expenditures1 Initiating tax reforms, however, are often difficult. Taxation is often referred to as a classic case of a collective action problem. While government provisions of public goods can benefit everyone, the greater majority of the citizens would rather enjoy the benefits of public goods without contributing to the cost of providing them through taxes. This is the reason why there is no consistency for tax reforms, and there are very few lawmakers or legislators who would champion increasing taxes. Moreover, the coercive nature of taxation and perceptions of corruption in government lead to little confidence by citizens that taxes that they pay are translated into public services. Nonetheless, recent studies have shown that engaging citizens to tax debates and bargaining can be a more effective tax reform strategy. This role for taxation as a catalyst for more responsive and accountable governments and for expanding the state-citizens relations. However, is often overlooked. Contemporary study on taxation and development has found that taxation can strengthen state-society relationships with positive consequences for state and the extent to which governments are responsive and accountable top their citizens2. In other words, taxation has the potential not just to increase revenue but to contribute to broad improvements in governance, by encouraging taxpayers to engage directly with the government to demand public services and responsibilities in return for tax compliance. This referred to the state-building approach to tax reforms. Several types of taxes have been evolved based on the existing provisions of the law related to revenue collections. Travel tax is one among those types which the government imposed and mandates in every tourists who leave the country. Travel tax reforms have been changed from the time the administration also changed. Today, amendments, alterations and passing the bills on tourism protection in order to raise revenue for the settlement of debts and borrowings and for government investments purposes. Significance of the Study and Problem Statement The purpose of the research study is to review and analyse the pending Senate Bill No. 2018 â€Å"An Act Allocating the Travel Tax Collection to the Philippine Tourism Authority, Amending thereby Presidential Decree 1183, as Amended, and the Republic Act No.  7722, and For Other Purposes otherwise known as â€Å"The Travel Tax Reform Act of 2013 authored by the Hon. Senator Jinggoy Ejercito Estrada3. It seeks to give a clear view of the elements in passing this bill as part of tax reforms and serves as guiding principles for future tax reforms in the Philippines, eventually, propose specific tax reforms strategies whether this would be applicable to better governance e mphasizing the values of accountability, responsiveness, transparency and a democratic government. How can travel tax reforms can be modified to take more account of government and state-building objectives? This research study will serve as guide on applying the principles of Fiscal administration, its principles, policies and functions and be able to relate our views not only for the academe, actors in the public administration but for the public administration practitioners. The output of this study is to provide adequate information on travel tax reforms in the country for convenience for revenue purposes. The main focus of the analysis is to test whether this pending bill is a necessity for the country’s development. Objectives of the Study The researcher, in particular, intends to come up with the following objective: 1. Present a comprehensive details and review of the pending bill whether this is applicable to the massive development of our economy. 2. Evaluate the Philippines’ experience in travel tax reforms based on specific framework. 3. Determine and examine the existing rules, policies, provisions of the law and how this can be reformed to increase state accountability and increase tax morale. 4. Provide policy recommendations that can be adopted for future travel tax reforms and to give stand on the matter whether this bill shall be passed or not. Fiscal Policy in the Philippine Fiscal Administration In economics and political science, fiscal policy is the use of government revenue collection, also known as taxation. The two main instruments of fiscal policy are changes in the level and composition of taxation and government spending in various sectors. These changes can affect the following macroeconomic variable in the economy: Aggregate demand, distribution of income, allocation of scarce resources, expenditures, debt borrowings and spending. Development and growth in the economy may vary on the fiscal policy of the government. Fiscal policy refers to the use of the government budget to influence economic activity. It also refers to the â€Å"measures employed by governments to stabilize the economy, specifically by manipulating the levels and allocation of taxes and government expenditures. Fiscal measuresare frequently used to tandem with monetary policy tom achieve certain goals. In the Philippines, this is characterized by continuous and increasing levels of debt and budget deficits, though there have been improvements in the last few years. The Philippines government’s main source of revenue are taxes, with some non-tax revenue also being collected. To finance fiscal deficit and debt, the Philippines relies on both domestic and external sources. Fiscal policy during Marcos regime inherited a large fiscal deficit from the previous administration, but managed to reduce fiscal imbalance and improve tax collection through the introduction of the 1986 Tax Reform Program and the value added tax. The Ramos Administration experienced budget surpluses due to substantial gains from massive sales of government assets and strong foreign investments in its early years. However, the implementation of the 1997 Comprehensive Tax Reform and the onset of the Asian financial crisis resulted to a deteriorating fiscal position in the succeeding years and administrations. The Estrada Administration faced a large fiscal deficit due to the decrease in tax effort and the repayment of the Ramos Administration’s debt to contractors and suppliers. During Arroyo Administration, the Expanded Value Added Tax Law was enacted, national debt-to-GDP ratio peaked, and the underspending on public infrastructure and other capital expenditures was observed. During the First Regular Session of the 16th Congress of the Philippines, Senate Bill No. 2018 was introduced by the Hon. Senator Jingoy Ejercito Estrada4. The Bill entitled: â€Å" An Act Allocating the Travel Tax Collection to the Philippine Tourism Authority, Amending Thereby Presidential Decree 1183, and Republic Act 7722, and For Other Purposes: As explained by the Senator, he gives the vital role of tourism industry in boosting the country’s economy. Based on its mantra â€Å" It’s More Fun in the Philippines, the Department of Tourism (DOT) recorded 2. 38 million visitors or an 11.08% increase from various last year’s arrivals, for the first half of 2013 alone. In addition to this, the National Statistical Coordination Board (NCSB) revealed on November 2012 that according to the latest results of the Philippine Tourism Satellite (PTSA), the contribution of tourism in the economy in 2011 was 5. 9%, based on the share of tourism direct gross value added (T DGV) to total gross domestic product. PTSA further revealed that â€Å"share of tourism employment to the total employment in the country slightly increased at 10. 3 percent estimated at 3. 8 million in 2011, higher by 3. 5 percent from last year’s 3. 7 million. 5 Under section 3 of the Senate Bill â€Å"Allocation of Travel Tax Collection to the Philippine Tourism Authority. Pursuant to the aforecited state policy, all proceeds of the travel tax shall be utilized exclusively for the tourism projects of the Philippine Tourism Authority. According to Mr. Julian Misolas Jr6. , The Philippine Tourism Agency is the sole agency responsible for the collection of Travel taxes either a Filipino citizens or a Foreigner leaving the country. The other provisions of the bill stated the restriction of the accredited collection agency, there Remittances of the Travel tax Collection and Submission of reports, Traveltax exemptions, the Travel tax refund, and civil remedies. Under the remedies, there are two options in order to cope up with the circumstances: a) Distraint of Personal property and b) Levy on Real Estate Property. What is Travel Tax? Travel Tax is a levy imposed by the Philippine government on the following individuals who are leaving the count ry irrespective of the place where their air ticket is issued and the form or place or payment, as provided for by Presidential Decree 1183. â€Å"Under presidential Decree (PD) 1183, as amended by PD 1205, Batas Pambansa 38. And Executive Order 283, Filipinos and other nationals traveling to the other countries are required to pay travel tax before departure from the Philippines, irrespective where the air ticket is issued and the form of place of payment†. The following individuals are required to pay the travel tax: Filipino nationals, permanent resident aliens, Non-resident aliens who have stayed in the Philippines for more than one (1). There are exemptions to the general rule: The following Filipino citizens are exempted from the payment of travel tax pursuant to Se2.Of PD 1183, as amended): 1) Overseas Filipino Workers, Filipino permanent residents abroad whose stay in the Philippines is less than a year and 3) infants ( 2 years old and below) . Among those exempted from paying the travel taxes, they have to present valid identification documents to certify the authenticity of stay. Upon submission of the documentary documents, citizens are eligible for reduce rate of travel. Under Republic A ct 7194 otherwise known as the Balikbayan Law, on November 7, 2002 during the 12th Congress this laws was approved. â€Å"An Act Amending Republic Act 6768, Entitled, â€Å"An Act Instituting A Balikabayan Program’ by Providing Additional benefits and Privileges to Balikbayan and For Other Purposes: Sec 1. †¦ A Balikbayan Program is hereby instituted under the administration of the Department of Tourism to attract and encourage Overseas Filipino to come and visit their Motherland Section 1 encourages Overseas Filipino to come and visit their motherland. This is to recognize their notable contribution to the economy of the country through the foreign exchange inflow and revenue that they generate. Section 2 gives the definition of Balikbayan which means a Filipino citizen who has been continuously OUT OF THE Philippines for a period at least one (1) year, A Filipino Overseas workers or a former a Filipino citizens and his or her family. The definition of family and the livelihood tools. Under Section 3 enumerated the benefits and privileges of the balikabayan. Among are the followings: a. Tax- exempt from maximum purchase in the amount of One Thousand Five Hundred united States dollars ($ 1,500.00) or its equivalent in Philippine Peso and in foreign currencies at all government-owned and controlled/operated duty-free shops subject to the limitations contained in Section 4 hereof; b. All domestic carriers shall establish a special promotional/incentive program for the balikbayan. c. Visa free entry to the Philippines for a period of one year (1) year for foreign passport holders, with exception of restricted nationals. d. Travel tax exemption as provided under Presidential Decr ee 1183 and other allied laws e. Especially designated reception areas at the authorized [ports of entry for the expeditious processing of documents. f. Accredited transportation facilities that will ensure their safe and convenient trips upon arrival. The Department of Tourism and the Department of Transportation and Communication and other concerned government agencies are hereby mandated to implement the program for this particular purpose; and g. Kahayan shopping privilege and additional tax exempt purchase in the maximum amount of Two Thousand United States dollars ( $ 2,000.00) or its equivalent in Philippine peso. h. Limitation have been stipulated in the law and duly approved by the President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo. It has been published in the official gazetteer at least (two) national papers of general circulations, whichever come earlier. Republic Act 9174 provides framework to those person indicated in Section 1 and 2 of this law for the exemption from paying the travel taxes. Other provisions are the r estrictions and limitations thereat. Philippine Tourism Authority (PTA)_has changed its name to Tourism Infrastructure and Enterprise Zone Authority ( TIEZA) under Republic Act 9593 otherwise known as Tourism Act of 2009 duly approved by the president Gloria Macapagal Arroyo in May 11, 2009, during the second regular session of the 14th Congress. The Act Entitled â€Å"An Act Declaring a National Policy for Tourism as an Engine of Investment, Employment, Growth and national Development, and Strengthening the Department of Tourism and its Attached Agencies to Effectively, Efficiently implement that Policy and Appropriating Funds Therefor. TIEZA has the sole authority to collect travel taxes and give benefits and privileges to those qualified Filipinos and those stated in Section 2 of the P. D. 1183. A certification of Compliance has been issued to TIEZA which will serve as the Transparency Seal provisions of the General Appropriation Act of 2013, 2012 and 211. Attached as annex a certification issued to TIEZA. Under section 4 of the Act it defined the following terms used: (a) â€Å"Department† refers to the Department of Tourism created pursuant to Presidential Decree No. 189 (1973), as amended.(b) â€Å"Secretary† refers to the Secretary of Tourism (c) â€Å"Duty Free Philippines (DFP) refers to government agency created out of DFP pursuant to this Act. (d) â€Å"Duty Free Philippines Corporation (DFPC) refers to corporate entity created out of DFP pursuant to this Act. (e) â€Å"Philippines Conventions and Visitors Corporation (PCVC) refers to the corporate entity created pursuant to presidential D ecree No. 86, amended. (f) â€Å"Intramuros Administration 9IA) refers to the government agency created pursuant to Presidential Decree No. 1616 (1979), as amended. (g) â€Å"Philippine retirement Authority (PRA) refers to the government agency created pursuant to Executive order No. 1037 (1985). (h) â€Å"Tourism Infrastructure and Enterprise Zone Authority (TIEZA)† refers to government agency created pursuant to this Act. (i) â€Å"Tourism EEnterprise Zone† (TEZ) refers to tourism (j) â€Å"TEZ overseer† refers to any person who shall be appointed by the TIEZA in specific zones to perform such functions as may be delegated by the TIEZA in accordance with law†¦ Other related definitions can refer to Section 4 of this Act. Under Section 72 of this Act provides funding for TIEZA. The TIEZA shall obtained the funds for itys operations from the following: (a) Fifty percent (50%) of the proceeds from the travel tax collections; (b) A reasonable share from the collections of Office of Tourism resource generation, to be determined by the Department (c) Income from Projects managed by TIEZA (d) Subsidies and grants from local and foreign sources that maybe received by the TIEZA. At least five (5%) from the travel tax collection which shall accrue to the TIEZA shall be earmarked for the development of historic, cultural, religious and heritage sits and prime tourist destinations†¦.{underscoring supplied} Section 73 of this Act state the Collection and Allocation of Travel Taxes. For purposes of this Act, the TIEZA shall the principal agency responsible for the timely collection of travel taxes. Amounts to be collected by the TIEZA shall be distributed in the manner provided for under this Act: Provided, that the national government shall for alternative funding sources for programs funded by the travel tax in the event of a phase out travel tax collection following international agreements. Pursuant to Section 72 of this Act fifty percent (50%) of the proceeds out of travel tax collections shall accrue to the tIEZA. The government contribution to the Higher Education Development Fund, equivalent to forty (40%) percent from the total gross collections of travel tax, shall be retained: Provided that the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) shall give priority to tourism related educational programs and course. The ten percent (10%) share of the national Commission for the Culture and the Arts from the total gross collections of the travel tax shall likewise be retained. Public Budgeting Allocation of Budget in Tourism industry especially in the collection and allocation of Travel Taxes has counterpart, with the Department of Budget and Management (DBM), The Department of Finance (DOF), Commission on Audit (COA), Bureau of Internal (BIR), The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and the National Commission on Culture and the Arts (NCAA) and other concerned agency in tourism industry. The Appropriation based on the General Appropriation Act of 2013 for the Department of Tourism (DOT). It is a political process because the decision and priorities is determine more valuable to the society and boosting technical and merit with constituents need or demands.

Thursday, April 9, 2020

Manchild in the Promised Land free essay sample

This book is based on Claude browns childhood during the 1940’s and 1950’s. is childhood was very bizarre and highly stressful in my opinion. he doesn’t really know what he wants in life. There are a lot of bad influences around him and unfortunately he does get dragged into a lot of things where a young boy shouldn’t be. Sonny was someone that didn’t exactly know his place but he had a whole bunch of friends such as: Butch, Danny, Turk, and others, which got sonny into stealing, bunking school and he was no younger than 8 years old. Sonny got into many fights because according to adults if a boy could fight he was going to make it in the world. When sonny was growing up he would always be in and out of different â€Å"juvenile detention centers†. They were like a second home to him, but he leaned a lot in those places. We will write a custom essay sample on Manchild in the Promised Land or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page He meant a lot of friends and also was introduced to the importance of an education. he would always get beat by his father for stealing, bunking and being disrespectful. Sonny got into drugs and when he got to that age it was all he did along with beat boxing and thinking of girls and more. Sonny’s family life was very hectic; him and his father were not close. His parents were both country folk so it was very hard for sonny to talk to them when he being a city boy had to hear talking about â€Å"lynching† and all that sorts. Sonny’s mother was very careful about her kids, she cared for them like any mother would but and it killed her o know her son was out smoking weed, bunking school and stealing. Sonny had 2 sisters and a brother, his sisters were named Carole and Margie and his brother was Pimp. Sonny and his sisters were close but as he grew up their relatioship suffered. Pimp was sonnys younger brother so ofcourse he looked up to him but sonny was always introuble so he didn’t get to help pimp understand right from wrong, pimp learned it on his own, although he didn’t go into the right direction exactly. This book has a lot of â€Å"details† and a lot went on but most of all it was about sonny and how things alwas got bad, and he realized he needed to do better for himself. He got into school, and moved out of his neighborhood so the â€Å"suburbs† of town. He had a lot of downs in his lifefrom friends passing away from drug abuse to him falling in love with a jewish girl and having his skin color be the reason she gets taken away, but he also learnes true love coquers all. claude brown is one of those people that although their luves may have had a lot of bitter things happen they aways manage to sweeten it up and make something out oif themselves. They use the bad to highlight the good. I find that very admirable.

Monday, March 9, 2020

Intercultural Interview Analysis Essay

Intercultural Interview Analysis Essay Intercultural Interview Analysis Essay Cultural changes have been witnessed in most parts of the world. In the current world, it is becoming difficult to maintain indigenous cultures. This is attributed to the rate at which technology is transforming the world across borders and making interactions between people of different cultures easier. The interaction has facilitated erosion of several aspects of people’s cultures. In place of these cultural norms, people adapt universal ways of doing things which determine how they carry out social aspects of their lives. However, this has not always been the case; people had distinct cultural values that determined how they went about their economic and social affairs. These elements identified the different cultural groupings back then. Consequently, understanding these aspects and adapting to them represent the greatest challenge for people who work across borders. Even though there have been continuous erosion of most cultural values, these changes are more pronounc ed in the younger generation. The older generation is more rigid in the aspect that they have held to cultural values. Understanding a people’s culture is critical in communicating with the people. It is the reason why one has to know the culture before setting out to interact with a different cultural group. The best way to understand cultural differences is by carrying out interviews. This paper structures such an interview with a fellow student who is a Mexican. Interview structure The questions to ask in the interview are modeled to understand the differences between North American culture and Mexican culture. These questions put emphasis on the importance of communication in the Mexican culture, and how communication is facilitated across different members of the culture. The first question will ask recognizable differences on how people communicate in America as compared to Mexico. The second question will focus on whether there is equity across gender groups in the Mexican culture. The third question focuses on the use of non verbal signs in both cultures while the last question will ask the difficulties in adapting to American culture if one is from Mexico. Getting adequate answers to these questions will help in understanding the Mexican culture and how communication can be facilitated between an American and a Mexican. Interview analysis The interview which took about 30 minutes brought out certain differences as well as similarities between the two cultures. Most importantly, it helped provide information on how communication can be facilitated between the two cultures. Starting with the differences, the Mexican culture has a different inclination on what prompts their interest in conversations. In North America, it is easy to elicit conversations through fairy tales and detective stories as these thrill a significant part of the American communication. This is very different from Mexicans who find thrill in stories themed on love myths and legends. The difference is critical in establishing what mode of communication to adopt in reference to Americans or Mexicans (Crouch, 2004). It is worth noting that Mexicans delight in fantasy or fantasizing while Americans prefer hard reality. Using factual information as a head start for a conversation with a Mexican may not prompt a conversation and it would hinder communicat ion between the individuals. Americans are automatically trusting. On the other hand, Mexicans are automatically suspicious and require a clear indication of intent coupled with actual evidence before trusting. To encourage communication with a Mexican, one needs to give them time to understand the person or else they would become suspicious. Consequently, in such cases, no meaningful communication would take place. Americans encourage criticism and are not opposed to change. Mexicans on the other hand eschew criticism and are fearful of change. Criticizing a Mexican the same way one would do to an American would attract a hostile reaction which would hinder effective communication. There are also views on gender equity which impacts communication between Americans and Mexicans. Americans have little emphasis on male supremacy and talking to a woman is not taken as belittling a man. In contrast, Mexicans are a patriarchal society where talking to a woman preferentially is viewed as demeaning to a man. This disco urages sober communication and in some instances elicits hostility from the predominantly patriarchal society. However, there are some similarities in the two cultures, the most common being use of gestures in communication. These gestures include nodding which means acceptance and shaking of one’s head which denotes negation (Mente, 2009). These are the only clear cut similarities impacting on information between the American and Mexican cultures. In conclusion, intercultural analysis enabled by this kind of an interview involves an actual encounter between two participants who represent different linguistic and cultural backgrounds. It presents an opportunity to identify similarities and differences between these linguistic and cultural backgrounds. By identifying these differences and similarities, those seeking to interact have a basis of doing it successfully by creating the right impression. The right impression encourages communication and makes it easy to elicit information or conduct business in the foreign culture. However, the success of this is dependent on the structure of the interview which should include questions on all aspects that impact communication within the other culture. From the above comparison, it is easy to understand the Mexican culture and this facilitates easy communication within the cultural setup.

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Theater of war Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Theater of war - Essay Example Today, there is war in countries like Iraq and Afghanistan. A lot of American soldiers are constantly being sent in this war zones. When you think about the families of these soldiers, they are anxiously waiting for their children to return (Buruma 6). Wars have always resulted to death and sorrow in families and leave many people worry. In the movie, we see the mother worried sick about her son who has gone to war. It is a very moving since every mother understands the value of having a son. Wars have always been in place and resulted to too many disasters as innocent people die. In relation to the movie, the mother mentioned in the book is a representation of love. Mothers are usually lovely and soothing to their children and always want good things. In the movie, mothers are likened to real mothers in life. In life, most mothers are caring and love seeing good things happening to their families. My mother for example can be likened to the mother in the story since she is loving an d caring to me. Whenever any person in the family gets sick or gets involved in an accident, she is always concerned (Buruma 6). From the star of time, mothers have always cared for the young ones. Soldiers in this movie are expressed as heartless on carrying out some of their duties. Living in these times, such can be correlated to mass murders carried out by certain leaders. A good example could be Muamar Gaddafi, ex-president of Libya, who after being evicted from power, revolted widely and resulted to mass murder of people. The storyline depicts heartless people to be existent in the war area, but such people still exist in these current times. I would also like to recommend this movie to be viewed at our local theater since it has a good message to the viewers. To me, I think it would be an eye opener to the people concerning the reality of wars. In addition, certain virtues could be learnt from them movie and even borrowed by other people (Buruma 6). The movie can be viewed by all groups of people since it does not contain explicit details. The English of the narrator is good and employs good narration skills of the events ensuring that the documentary is understood clearly. Furthermore, by it being played in the local theater, it would encourage community cohesion. I would like this play to be viewed by our community because I believe it is beneficial and inspiring as the truth about wars is unveiled. In addition, different characters express characteristics of people in the society and some people might learn from it. From my own perspective, the movie is good and should be watched by as much people as possible since they will be able to learn about the evils of war and try never to indulge in it (Buruma 6). War like people in the community could learn the repercussions of war and calm down. In addition, the movie would help to strengthen familial ties since people would appreciate the importance of family in times of crisis. In addition, a lot of grue some scenes which the writer talks about are not shown hence becoming a good movie for all ages to see. Furthermore, the community members would be fascinated by viewing the movie as it has good teachings. In summary, this movie is a good documentary movie on wars and a great eye opener on real issues that occur and surround wars. Many life lessons are also learnt from the movie as